The Social Policy of the EESC and the European Parliament between 1953 and 1986
From the very beginning, the European communities intended to be more than entirely economic alliances. This commented bibliography aims to give a literature basis for a master thesis that wants to give a little proof on that: Its intended main subject is – as announced in the title – the social policy of the European Parliament (EP) and of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), both working more or less closely together on the subject in several sub-areas. Further, the influence of EP and EESC on European social policy will be compared to the influence of the European Coal and Steel Community’s social policy. Another important relation will be pointed out: the one between the EP and the different national governments of the Six, concerning social policy in matters of labour. Social policy concerning the free movement of workers, e.g. of experts, will be examined, as it is one of the main problems of the national governments; further labour times and conditions as well as salaries ans insurance systems. Regarded period will be the time between the creation of the EP, taking up its work in 1953, and the Single European Act of 1986.
Crucial for the research will be primary sources – reports, plans, protocols etc. They can be found in different archives, especially the EU archives, and on certain websites, e.g. the CEVE website, where sources are not only listed, but commented and arranged. This bibliography is rather limited on secondary sources. Though there are not many, information can be collected from different disciplinary areas, as the subject is part of the contemporary history – and thus the creation – of today’s Europe.
Bade, Klaus J. Europa in Bewegung. Migration vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. 2nd ed. München: C.H.Beck, 2002.
Klaus Bade discusses the developments and facts of migration in the last 200 years. This is no primary subject of the intended thesis – but it contains an important aspect of the workers’ social situation in the regarded period: With the installation and opening of the European common market, labour migration becomes more and more important and as well more and more daily. Bade’s work contains information on that, on the workers’ movements and the characteristics of labour in the Community. Thus it can be a valuable addition to basic literature.
Barbier, Jean-Claude. The Road to Social Europe: A Contemporary Approach to Political Cultures and Diversity in Europe. Routledge, 2012.
Though not being a historian, the sociologist Jean-Claude Barbier presents an interesting view on Europe’s past and present in common and national social matters. Thus his work becomes a valuable interdisciplinary addition to the historical works used for the master thesis. Not all chapters of the book are of interest for the thesis’ subject – e.g. Part II, „Toward a sociological understanding of cultural diversity in Europe“, can almost entirely be ignored. But, e.g., the sociologist’s view on „Fifty years of Social Europe (1957-2007): a realistic appraisal“ is worth being examined.
Boldt, Gerhard. La protection des travailleurs en cas de perte de l’emploi. Edited by the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. High Authority. Luxembourg: Services des publications des Communautés, 1961.
This work may rather be regarded as a primary source document than as a literature source – either way, it is of great value for the intended master thesis, as it describes very detailed one specific part of the labour policy and situation in the ECSC. The national circumstances are considered, as well as the common status quo, the legal and economic situation. What makes the work especially important for the master thesis is the focus on protection of workers – what is one crucial part of their social situation. Being written only a few years after the creation of the ECSC, the document shows very well the intentions of the young Community – though it does not represent the success, or failure, of these intentions.
Collins, Doreen. The European Communities – The Social Policy of the First Phase, Volume 1: The European Coal and Steel Community 1951-1970. M. Robertson, 1975.
Collins, Doreen. The European Communities – The Social Policy of the First Phase, Volume 2: The European Economic Community, 1958-72. M. Robertson, 1975.
Doreen Collins’ works on the social policy of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC) are unique in their field, showing very detailed the developments and results of a Community trying to not only be an economic, but as well a social one. The books are published in 1975 – what makes them not the most contemporary ones, but a close examiner of this time’s situation. As usually in specific scientific literature, they require additional, more general literature to understand and arrange the developments in a greater context. Though they are, until today, outstanding in their structured contents, the social side of labour in the ECSC and EEC, and will thus be main literature sources of the intended master thesis.
Dufresne, Anne, C. Degryse, and Philippe Pochet, eds. The European Sectoral Social Dialogue: Actors, Developments, and Challenges. Peter Lang, 2006.
The book offers an overview over the social dialogue in several different sectors of the European Union (EU). Though the intended master thesis does not go further than until the creation of the EU, this book gives some valuable information: Before examining contemporary facts and cases, it presents some historical background on social developments in Europe, especially European industry. As the industry was the first common economic sector in the European integration process, it is important to include some basic information about it – and especially about the related social policy – in the thesis.
Leboutte, René. Histoire économique et sociale de la construction européenne. Peter Lang, 2008.
René Leboutte, holder of the Jean Monnet Chair in European Contemporary History, describes very detailed the economic and social history of the last 100 years of Europe. Though rather focusing on economic developments, the book offers some well-arranged information on the plans that were made and steps that were taken. As the social policy of that time was closely bound to the economic aims of the community – and vice versa – information can as well be found in chapters not primary describing the community’s social, but economic policy. Leboutte chose not to structure his work entirely chronological, but in thematic units. Of special interest for the thesis are those ones concerning the creation of the common market, including the free movement of workers, and, of course, the chapters examining different aspects of labour policy in different periods and areas.
Piodi, Franco. Das Europäische Parlament vor 50 Jahren. Schriftenreihe CARDOC No. 2 März 2008. Luxembourg, 2008.
One crucial point of the intended master thesis is the European Parliament – its influence on common social policy, its plans and actions. So it is important to know how much power the EP had at the beginning of the EEC, and which role it could really play in the process of social rapprochement. The CARDOC book offers general information on that, giving as well some background information on primary source documents for further research. Though it does not exceptionally treat the subject of social policy, it offers a good basis to understand and arrange why the Parliament acted as it did.
Rasmussen, Morten, and Ann-Christina L. Knudsen. The Road to a United Europe: Interpretations of the Process of European Integration. Peter Lang, 2009.
The book, result of a Conference on European integration history, gives in several articles an overview over general strands of European integration, i.a. concerning social and economic policy on national and common level. Thus it allows to put more specific works used for the master thesis in a wider context, offering itself quite specific details in some cases. Though it contains no article that deals directly with the subject of the intended thesis, it may be of great help giving some background and peripheric information.
Weidenfeld, Werner, and Wolfgang Wessels, eds. Europa von A-Z – Taschenbuch der europäischen Integration. Bonn: bpb, 1995.
In this book, a number of articles about different aspects of European integration is collected. Thus it offers a general overview on the process and status quo of the European Community and, later, Union. Several texts can be used to give basic information. Of special interest for the intended thesis is the article „Sozialpolitik“ (p. 297-301) by Christian Engel, showing the main steps of the European social policy’s development. Of big value is the collection of source documents that are included in the text.
Werner, Heinz. “Wirtschaftliche Integration und Arbeitskräftewanderungen in der EU.” Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 8/2001 (2001): 11–19.
Heinz Werner examines the European economic integration and, especially, the migration movements of workers in the economically unified part of Europe. Though labour conditions – as the main subject of the intended master thesis – are not the primary subject of the article, these movement developments can give some valuable information on the subject, as they represent a part of the status quo of the European labour market in different stages. The „Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung“, publisher of the magazine, publishes a lot of trustworthy, valuable works on political, economic and historical subjects – this article connects the three areas and gives this way another interdisciplinary view on the regarded subject.